Hernia In India
What is Hernia ?
A hernia is the exit of an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.Hernias come in a number of different types. Most commonly they involve the abdomen, specifically the groin.Groin hernias are most common of the inguinal type but may also be femoral. Other hernias include hiatus, incisional, and umbilical hernias.For groin hernias symptoms are present in about 66% of people.
Other complications include hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus or dilated stomach veins, and liver cancer. Hepatic encephalopathy results in confusion and possibly unconsciousness.
Signs and symptoms
By far the most common hernias develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or "defect", through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia involves the spinal discs and causes sciatica. A hiatus hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
Hernias may or may not present with either pain at the site, a visible or palpable lump, or in some cases more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become "stuck" in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction. Fatty tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed or accompanied by an organ.
Surgery is recommended for some types of hernias to prevent complications like obstruction of the bowel or strangulation of the tissue, although umbilical hernias and hiatus hernias may be watched, or are treated with medication.Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, but surgery has complications.
Many people are managed through day surgery centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while intense activities are prohibited for a longer period. People who have their hernias repaired with mesh often recover in a number of days, though pain can last longer.
About 27% of males and 3% of females develop a groin hernia at some time in their life.Inguinal, femoral and abdominal hernias resulted in 51,000 deaths in 2013 and 55,000 in 1990.
Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with "visceral hernias", where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:
Amyand's hernia: containing the appendix vermiformis within the hernia sac.
Cooper's hernia: a femoral hernia with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing almost immediately beneath the skin.