Pediatric Orthopaedics in India
What is Pediatric Orthopaedics ?
A hallux abducto valgus deformity, commonly called a bunion, is a deformity characterized by medial deviation of the first metatarsal and lateral deviation of the hallux (big toe), often erroneously described as an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the head of the big toe.
The term "hallux valgus" or "hallux abducto-valgus" are the most commonly used medical terms associated with a bunion anomaly, where "hallux" refers to the great toe, "valgus" refers to the abnormal angulation of the great toe commonly associated with bunion anomalies, and "abductus/-o" refers to the abnormal drifting or inward leaning of the great toe towards the second toe, which is also commonly associated with bunions. It is important to state that "hallux abducto" refers to the motion the great toe moves away from the body's midline. Deformities of the lower extremity are usually named in accordance to the body's midline, or the line bisecting the body longitudinally into two halves. In more severe cases, the hallux continuing in the abductus fashion eventually either overlaps or underlaps subsequent lesser (small) toes especially the second (adjacent toe).
Knee arthroscopy has in many cases replaced the classic arthrotomy that was performed in the past. Today knee arthroscopy is commonly performed for treating meniscus injury, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and for cartilage microfracturing. Arthroscopy can also be performed just for diagnosing and checking of the knee; however, the latter use has been mainly replaced by magnetic resonance imaging.
Arthroscopic surgeries of the knee are done for many reasons, but it is not clear whether it is a more effective for osteoarthritis than more conservative therapies.
The spinous process is short and bifid, the two divisions being often of unequal size. Because the spinous processes are so short, certain superficial muscles (the trapezius and splenius capitis) attach to the nuchal ligament rather than directly to the vertebrae; the nuchal ligament itself attaching to the spinous processes of C2-C7 and to the posterior tubercle of the atlas.
Arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint is sometimes used as either a diagnostic procedure for symptoms and signs related to these joints, or as a therapeutic measure in conditions like temporomandibular joint dysfunction.
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Blisters may form more easily around the site of the bunion as well.
Having bunions can also make it more difficult to find shoes that fit properly; bunions may force a person to have to buy a larger size shoe to accommodate the width the bunion creates. When bunion deformity becomes severe enough, the foot can hurt in different places even without the constriction of shoes because it then becomes a mechanical function problem of the forefoot.
Procedures are designed and chosen to correct a variety of pathologies that may be associated with the bunion. For instance, procedures may address some combination of:
removing the abnormal bony enlargement of the first metatarsal,
realigning the cartilagenous surfaces of the great toe joint,